• 你知道怎樣區別方管材質?方管的生產方法嗎?
  • 本站編輯:杭州亨鑫鋼鐵有限公司發布日期:2019-09-18 17:43 瀏覽次數:
1、方管的概念:方管是鋼錠、鋼坯或方管通過壓力加工制成我們所需要的各種形狀、尺寸和性能的材料。
 
1. The concept of square pipes: square pipes are materials of various shapes, sizes and properties that we need to make by pressure processing of ingots, billets or square pipes.
 
 
 
方管是國家建設和實現四化必不可少的重要物資,應用廣泛、品種繁多,根據斷面形狀的不同、方管一般分為型材、板材、管材和金屬制品四大類、為了便于組織方管的生產、訂貨供應和搞好經營管理工作,又分為重軌、輕軌、大型型鋼、中型型鋼、小型型鋼、方管冷彎型鋼,優質型鋼、線材、中厚鋼板、薄鋼板、電工用硅鋼片、帶鋼、無縫鋼管方管、焊接鋼管、金屬制品等品種。
 
Square pipe is an important and indispensable material for national construction and Realization of the four modernizations. It is widely used and varies in varieties. According to the different section shapes, square pipe is generally divided into four categories: profiles, sheets, pipes and metal products. In order to facilitate the production, ordering supply and management of square pipe, square pipe is also divided into heavy rail, light rail, large-sized steel, medium-sized steel, small-sized steel and square steel. Cold-formed steel pipe, high-quality section steel, wire rod, medium and heavy steel plate, thin steel plate, electrical silicon steel sheet, strip steel, seamless steel square pipe, welded steel pipe, metal products and other varieties.
 
 
 
2、方管的生產方法
 
2. Production Method of Square Pipe
 
 
 
大部分方管加工都是方管通過壓力加工,使被加工的鋼(坯、錠等)產生塑性變形。根據方管加工溫度不方管同以分冷加工和熱加工兩種。方管的主要加工方法有:
 
Most of the square tube processing is the square tube through pressure processing, so that the processed steel (billet, ingot, etc.) produce plastic deformation. According to the processing temperature of square pipe, both cold processing and hot processing are used. The main processing methods of square pipe are as follows:
 
 
 
軋制:將方管金屬坯料通過一對旋轉軋輥的間隙(各種形狀),因受軋輥的壓縮使材料截面減小,長度增加的壓力加工方法,這是生產方管最常用的生產方式,主要用來生產方管型材、板材、管材。分冷軋、熱軋。
 
Rolling: Pressure processing of square tube billet through a pair of rotating rolls (various shapes), which reduces the material cross section and increases the length due to the compression of rolls. This is the most commonly used production method for square tube, mainly used to produce square tube profiles, sheets and pipes. Separate cold rolling and hot rolling.
 
 
 
鍛造方管:利用鍛錘的往復沖擊力或壓力機的壓力使坯料改變成我們所需的形狀和尺寸的一種壓力加工方法。一般分為自由鍛和模鍛,常用作生產大型材、開坯等截面尺方管寸較大的材料。
 
Forging square pipe: A method of pressure processing that uses the reciprocating impact force of the hammer or the pressure of the press to change the blank into the shape and size we need. Generally divided into free forging and die forging, often used for the production of large-scale materials, blanks and other cross-sectional size of the larger material.
 
 
 
拉撥方管:是將已經軋制的金屬坯料(型、管、制品等)通過??桌瓝艹山孛鏈p小長度增加的加工方法大多用作冷加工。
 
Drawing square pipe: Drawing the rolled metal billet (shape, pipe, product, etc.) through the die hole to reduce the section length and increase the processing methods are mostly used for cold processing.
 
 
 
擠壓:是方管將金屬放在密閉的擠壓簡內,一端施加壓力,使金屬從規定的??字袛D出而得到有同形狀和尺寸的成品的加工方法,多用于生產有色金屬材方管
 
Extrusion: It is a method for square pipe to place metal in a sealed extrusion chamber and exert pressure at one end to extrude metal from a prescribed die hole to obtain finished products of the same shape and size. It is mostly used in the production of non-ferrous metal square pipe.
 
 
 
一、黑色金屬、鋼和有色金屬 在介紹鋼的分類之前先簡單介紹一下黑色金屬、方管鋼與有色金屬的基本概念。
 
First, before introducing the classification of steel, the basic concepts of ferrous metal, square pipe steel and non-ferrous metal are briefly introduced.
 
 
 
1、黑色金屬是指鐵和鐵的合金。如鋼、生鐵、鐵合金、鑄鐵等。鋼和生鐵都是以鐵方管為基礎,以碳為主要添加元素的合金,統稱為鐵碳合金。
 
1. Ferrous metals refer to the alloys of iron and iron. Such as steel, pig iron, ferroalloy, cast iron, etc. Both steel and pig iron are alloys based on square iron pipe and with carbon as the main additive element. They are collectively called iron-carbon alloys.
 
 
 
生鐵是指把鐵礦石放到高爐中冶煉而成的產品,主要用來煉鋼和方管制造鑄件。 把鑄造生鐵放在熔鐵爐中熔煉,即得到鑄鐵(液狀),把液狀鑄鐵澆鑄成鑄件方管,這種鑄鐵叫鑄鐵件。
 
Pig iron is a product made by smelting iron ore in blast furnace. It is mainly used for steelmaking and square tube casting. Cast pig iron is melted in an iron melting furnace to obtain cast iron (liquid state). The liquid state cast iron is cast into square pipes of castings. This kind of cast iron is called cast iron.
 
 
 
鐵合金是由鐵與硅、錳、鉻、鈦等元素組成的合金,鐵合金是煉鋼的原料之一,在方管煉鋼時做鋼的脫氧劑和合金元素添加劑用。
 
Ferroalloy is an alloy composed of iron and silicon, manganese, chromium, titanium and other elements. Ferroalloy is one of the raw materials for steelmaking. It is used as deoxidizer and additive of alloy elements in square tube steelmaking.
 
 
 
2、把煉鋼用生鐵放到煉鋼爐內按一定工藝熔煉,即得到鋼。鋼的產品有鋼錠、連鑄坯和直方管接鑄成各種鋼鑄件等。通常所講的鋼,一般是指軋制成各種方管的鋼。方管鋼屬于黑色金屬但鋼不完全等于黑色金屬。
 
2. Put pig iron for steelmaking into the steelmaking furnace and melt it according to a certain process, that is to say, steel is obtained. The products of steel include ingot, continuous casting slab and rectangular pipe casting into various steel castings. Generally speaking, steel refers to the steel rolled into various square tubes. Square pipe steel belongs to ferrous metal, but steel is not exactly equal to ferrous metal.
 
 
 
3、方管有色金屬又稱非鐵金屬,指除黑色金屬外的金屬和合金,如銅、錫、鉛、鋅、鋁以及黃銅、青銅、鋁合金和軸承合金等。另外在工業上還采用鉻、鎳、錳、鉬、鈷方管、釩、鎢、鈦等,這些金屬主要用作合金附加物,以改善金屬的性能,其中鎢、方管鈦、鉬等多用以生產刀具用的硬質合金。以上這些有色金屬都稱為工業用金屬,方管此外還有貴重金屬:鉑、金、銀等和稀有金屬,包括放射性的鈾、鐳等方管。
 
3. Non-ferrous metals in square tubes are also called non-ferrous metals. They refer to metals and alloys other than ferrous metals, such as copper, tin, lead, zinc, aluminium, brass, bronze, aluminium alloys and bearing alloys. In addition, chromium, nickel, manganese, molybdenum, cobalt square tubes, vanadium, tungsten and titanium are also used in industry. These metals are mainly used as alloy additives to improve the properties of metals, among which tungsten, square tubes, titanium and molybdenum are used to produce cemented carbides for cutting tools. These non-ferrous metals are called industrial metals, besides precious metals: platinum, gold, silver and rare metals, including radioactive uranium, radium and other square tubes.
二、方管的分類
 
鋼是方管含碳量在0.04%-2.3%之間的鐵碳合金。為了保證其韌性和塑性,含碳量一般不超過1.7%。鋼的主要元素除鐵、碳外,還有硅、錳、硫、磷等。鋼的分類方法多種方管多樣,其主要方法有如下七種:
 
1、方管按品質分類
 
(1) 普通鋼(P≤0.045%,S≤0.050%)
 
(2) 優方管質鋼(P、S均≤0.035%)
 
(3) 高級優質鋼(P≤0.035%,S≤0.030%)
 
2.、按化學成份分類
 
(1) 碳素鋼:方管a.低碳鋼(C≤0.25%);b.中碳鋼(C≤0.25~0.60%);c.高碳鋼(C≤0.60%)。
 
(2) 合金鋼:a.低合金鋼(合金元素總含量≤5%);b.中合金鋼(合金元素總含量>5~10%);c.高合金鋼(合金元素總含量>10%)。
 
3、方管按成形方法分類:(1) 鍛鋼;(2) 鑄鋼;(3) 熱軋鋼;(4) 冷拉鋼。
 
4、方管按金相組織分類
 
(1) 退火狀態的:a.亞共析鋼(鐵素體+珠光體);b.共析鋼(珠光體);c.過共方管析鋼(珠光體+滲碳體);d.萊氏體鋼(珠光體+滲碳體)。
 
(2) 正火狀態的:a.珠光體鋼;b.貝氏體鋼;c.馬氏體鋼;d.奧氏體鋼。
 
(3) 方管無相變或部分發生相變的 5、按用途分類
 
1) 建筑及工程用鋼:a.普通碳素結構鋼;b.低合金結構鋼;c.鋼筋鋼。
 
(2) 方管結構鋼
 
a.機械制造用鋼:(a)調質結構鋼;(b)表面硬化結構鋼:包括滲碳鋼、滲氨鋼、表面淬火用鋼;(c)易切結構鋼;(d)冷塑性成形用鋼:包括冷沖壓用鋼、冷鐓用鋼。
 
b.彈簧鋼
 
c.軸承鋼
 
(3) 工具鋼:a.碳素工具鋼;b.合金工具鋼;c.高速工具鋼。
 
(4) 特殊性能鋼:a.不銹耐酸鋼;b.耐熱鋼:包括抗氧化鋼、熱強鋼、氣閥鋼;c.電熱合金鋼;d.耐磨鋼;e.低溫用鋼;f.電工用鋼。
 
(5) 專業用鋼——如橋梁用鋼、船舶用鋼、鍋爐用鋼、壓力容器用鋼、農機用鋼等。
 
6、綜合分類
 
(1)普通鋼
 
a.碳素結構鋼:(a) Q195;(b) Q215(A、B);(c) Q235(A、B、C);(d) Q255(A、B);(e) Q275。
 
b.低合金結構鋼
 
c.特定用途的普通結構鋼
 
(2)優質鋼(包括高級優質鋼)
 
a.方管結構鋼:(a)優質碳素結構鋼;(b)合金結構鋼;(c)彈簧鋼;(d)易切鋼;(e)軸承鋼;(f)特定用途優質結構鋼。
 
b.工具鋼:(a)碳素工具鋼;(b)合金工具鋼;(c)高速工具鋼。
 
c.特殊性能鋼:(a)不銹耐酸鋼;(b)耐熱鋼;(c)電熱合金鋼;(d)電工用鋼;(e)高錳耐磨鋼。
 
7、按冶煉方法分類
 
(1) 按爐種分
 
a.平爐鋼:(a)酸性平爐鋼;(b)堿性平爐鋼。
 
b.轉爐鋼:(a)酸性轉爐鋼;(b)堿性轉爐鋼?;?(a)底吹轉爐鋼;(b)側吹轉爐鋼;(c)頂吹轉爐鋼。
 
c. 電爐鋼:(a)電弧爐鋼;(b)電渣爐鋼;(c)感應爐鋼;(d)真空自耗爐鋼;(e)電子束爐鋼。
 
(2)方管按脫氧程度和澆注制度分